Here we provide the publications we’ve authored individually and as a group on the topic of teachers’ unions and CBAs. We highlight several papers that provide context for the current and ongoing debate over teachers’ unions and collective bargaining.



Cowen, J. & Strunk, K.O. (2015). “The Impact of Teachers’ Unions on Educational Outcomes: What We Know and What We Need to Learn.” Economics of Education Review (48), 208-223.

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2014). My end of the bargain: Are there cross-district effects in teacher contract provisions? Industrial and Labor Relations Review 67(4), 1274-1305.

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., & Theobald, R. (2016). Inconvenient truth? Do CBAs help explain the mobility of teachers within school districts? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 35(4), 848-880.

Marianno, B. D, Kilbride, T., Theobald, R., Strunk, K. O., Cowen, J., & Goldhaber, D. (2018). Cut from the Same Cloth? Comparing Urban District CBAs Within States and Across the U.S. Educational Policy, 32(2), 334-359.

Marianno, B. D., Strunk, K O. (2018). The Bad End of the Bargain?: Revisiting the Relationship between Collective Bargaining Agreements and Student Achievement. Economics of Education Review.

Strunk, K.O. & Grissom, J.A. (2010). “Do Strong Unions Shape District Policies? Collective Bargaining, Teacher Contract Restrictiveness, and the Political Power of Teachers’ Unions.”  Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32(3), 389-406. 

Strunk, K.O. (2011). “Are Teachers’ Unions Really to Blame? Collective Bargaining Agreements and Their Relationships with  District Resource Allocation and Student Performance in California.” Education Finance and Policy, 6(3), 354-398.

Strunk, K. O., Cowen, Joshua, Goldhaber, Dan, Marianno, Bradley D, Kilbride, Tara, & Theobald, Roddy. (2018). It’s in the Contract: How the Policies Set in Teachers’ Unions Collective Bargaining Agreements Vary Across States and Districts. Educational Policy, 32(2), 280-312.


Cowen, J.  (2009). “Teacher Unions and Teacher Compensation: New Evidence for the Impact of Bargaining.” Journal of Education Finance 35(2) 

Cowen, J. & Fowles, J. (2013). “Same Contract, Different Day? An Analysis of Teacher Bargaining Agreements in Louisville Since 1979” Teachers College Record 115(5)

Cowen, Joshua M. and Marcus A. Winters. 2013. “Do Charters Retain Teachers Differently Than Traditional Public Schools? Evidence From Elementary Schools in Florida” Education Finance and Policy 8(1): 14-42 


Fowles, J. & Cowen, J. (2015). “In the Union Now: Understanding Public Sector Union Membership.” Administration and Society (equal authorship)

Goldhaber, D., Lavery, L., Theobald, R., D’Entremont, D., & Fang, Y. (2013). Teacher Collective Bargaining: Assessing the Internal Validity of Partial Independence Item Response Measures of Contract Restrictiveness. SAGE Open, April-June 2013, 1-16.

Grissom, J.A. & Strunk, K.O. (2012). “How Should School Districts Shape Teacher Salary Schedules? Linking Student Performance to Pay Structure in Traditional Salary Schemes.” Educational Policy, 26(5), 663-695. 

Marianno, B. D. (2015). Teachers’ Unions on the Defensive?: How Recent Collective Bargaining Laws Reformed the Rights of Teachers, Journal of School Choice, 9(4), 551-577.

Marianno, B. D. (2018). Down but Not Out: The National Education Association in Federal Politics. Educational Policy, 32(2), 234-254.

Strunk, K.O. & Reardon, S. (2010).  “Measuring the Strength of Teachers' Unions: An Empirical Application of the Partial Independence Item Response Approach.” Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 35(6), 629-670.

Strunk, K.O. & Zeehandelaar, D.* (2011). “Differentiated Compensation: How California School Districts Use Economic Incentives to Target Teachers.” Journal of Education Finance, 36(3), 268-293.

Strunk, K.O. & Zeehandelaar, D.* (2015). “Added Bonus? The Relationship between California School Districts’ Specialized Teacher Staffing Needs and the Use of Economic Incentive Policies.” Educational Policy, 29(2), 283-315. 


Strunk, K.O. (2010). “The Economics of Teachers’ Unions in the United States,” in Baker, E., McGaw, B. & Peterson, P. (Eds). The International Encyclopedia of Education, 3rd Edition.  Amsterdam: Elsevier.


Strunk, K.O. (2012). “Policy Poison or Promise?: Exploring the Dual Nature of California School District Collective Bargaining Agreements.” Educational Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 506-547.

Strunk, K.O. (2014). “Teachers Unions and Collective Bargaining,” in Brewer, D.J. & Picus, L. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Education Economics and Finance. Sage Publications.

Strunk, K.O., & McEachin, A.* (2011). “Accountability Under Constraint: The Relationship Between Collective Bargaining Agreements and Schools’ and Districts’ Performance Under No Child Left Behind.” American Educational Research Journal, 48(4), 871-903.

Strunk, K.O., Cowen, J., & Goldhaber, D., Marianno, B.*, Kilbride, T.* & Theobald, R. (2018). “It is in the Contract: How the Policies Set in Teachers’ Unions’ Collective Bargaining Agreements Vary Across States and Districts.” Educational Policy, 32(3), 280-310.


Cowen, J., & Strunk, K.O. (March 16, 2018). “A Continued Defense of Evidence in Education Policymaking.” Rick Hess Straight Up Blog, EdWeek.

Marianno, B. D., Strunk, K O. (2018) After Janus: A new era of teacher union activism. Education Next, 18(4), Fall.


Strunk, K.O. & Cowen, J. (November 16, 2015). “Teachers’ Unions: Shades of Grey.” Rick Hess Straight Up Blog, EdWeek.

Strunk, K.O., Cowen, J., Goldhaber, D., Marianno, B.D., Kilbride T., & Theobald, R. (2018). Collective Bargaining and State-Level Reforms: Assessing Changes to the Restrictiveness of Collective Bargaining Agreements across Three States.

Strunk, K.O., Goldhaber, D., & Cowen, J. (March 13, 2018). “Please, Let Research Inform the Union Debate.” Education Next.

Strunk, K.O. & Marianno, B. D. (November 17, 2015). “Beyond the Headlines: Are Teachers’ Unions Really Under Attack?” Rick Hess Straight Up Blog, EdWeek.

Strunk, K.O. (2014). “The Role of Collective Bargaining Agreements in the Implementation of Teacher Quality Reforms: Perils and Possibilities,” in Hess, R. & McShane, M. (Eds.) Teacher Quality 2.0: Will Today’s Reforms Hold Back Tomorrow’s Schools? Harvard Education Press.

Strunk, K. O., Goldhaber, D., Cowen, J., Marianno, B. D., Kilbride, T., Theobald, R. (2018). The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? Examining the consistency of collective bargaining provisions across states and time. Conference paper presented at AEFP

Strunk, K. O., & Marianno, B. D. Negotiating the Great Recession: How Teacher Collective Bargaining Agreements Change in Times of Financial Duress. Conference paper APPAM.

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